Nearly 190 countries aiming to halt the decline in biodiversity agreed to conserve 30% of the planet’s land and seas by 2030 in the recent COP15 Biodiversity Talks in Montreal. But while this this a big step for nature, very little has been done to understand how this will impact individuals and communities. Will conservation lead to increased inequality, as protected areas are created closer to richer and more educated communities? Who gains and who loses? Will there be differences in who gains and who loses from the creation of protected areas when comparing developed and developing countries?